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Lead-acid batteries represent about 60% of all batteries sold throughout the world. Their greatest application is in industry, providing the motive power for everything from forklift trucks to submarines. With the increasing pressures of environmental legislation lead-acid batteries are likely to be even more dominant in the coming years because they can be readily recycled
Lead-acid batteries are available
in two technologies:
flooded or valve-regulated
Flooded lead-acid batteries:
The tubular plate in a flooded lead acid battery is only used as a positive electrode. It is known as a robust plate, consisting of spines,
covered by a sleeve which is filled with lead oxide. This type offers very good cycle life
Valve Regulated Lead-Acid batteries (VRLA):
Two different kinds are available :
the electrolyte is absorbed in microporous separators, with a pasted plate, consisting of a grid covered with an active lead oxide paste, used for positive and negative electrodes.
the electrolyte is a gel material. These types of batteries are maintenance free and offer such benefits as no risk of acid leakage and resultant corrosion, and virtually no gas release (due to the gas recombination principle). The positive electrode is a tubular plate and the negative is a pasted plate.